The Irish Flag
The national flag of Ireland (Irish: bratach na hÉireann) – frequently referred to as “the Irish tricolour” – is a vertical tricolour of green (at the hoist), white, and orange.
The proportions of the flag are 1:2 (that is to say that, as flown horizontally, the flag is half as high as it is wide). The Irish government has described the symbolism behind each colour as being that of green representing the Gaelic tradition of Ireland, orange representing the followers of William of Orange in Ireland, and white representing the aspiration for peace between them.
Presented as a gift in 1848 to Thomas Francis Meagher from a small group of French women sympathetic to the Irish cause, it was not until the Easter Rising of 1916, when it was raised above the General Post Office in Dublin, that the tricolour came to be regarded as the national flag. Meagher was the son of Newfoundland-born mayor of Waterford, Thomas Meagher Jr, however there are two theories on his inspiration for the flag; the similarly-coloured Newfoundland Tricolour credited in legend as having been created in 1843, though this seems unlikely given the actual known history surrounding the Newfoundland Tricolour, and the French Tricolour.
The flag was adopted in 1916 by the Easter Rising rebels and subsequently by the Irish Republic during the Irish War of Independence (1919–1921). Its use was continued by the Irish Free State (1922–1937) and it was later given constitutional status under the 1937 Constitution of Ireland. The tricolour is used by nationalists on both sides of the border as the national flag of the whole island of Ireland since 1916. Thus it is flown by many nationalists in Northern Ireland as well as by the Gaelic Athletic Association.
Études sur Paris - Square du Vert-Galant, 1928
Los Alamos scientist sitting next to the worlds first atomic bomb shortly before the Trinity test. July 16, 1945
Temples of ancient Rome, 1820 illustrations by Matthew Dubourg (1786-1838), courtesy of the New York Public Library.
interior of a coffee-house in Vienna, Austria, cca. 1900.
Emma of Normandy
Queen Consort of England, Denmark and Norway.
Born c. 985 – Died 1052
Claim to Fame: the wife of two English Kings and mother of two English Kings, she was a pivotal character in the transition from Saxon to Danish and finally Norman rule over England.
In an attempt to unify Normandy and England, King Æthelred of England married Emma, the daughter of the Duke of Normandy. The couple had two sons, Edward and Alfred, and a daughter, Goda.
In 1015 Cnut, a Danish prince, invaded England. After the deaths of Æthelred and his heir Edmund Ironside in 1016, Cnut soon gained the English throne and married Emma. Her two sons were sent into exile. Though Cnut’s marriage to Emma was a political strategy, it became affectionate and produced a son, Harthacnut, and a daughter, Gunhilda. Emma altered the English succession in favour of Harthacnut, alienating her first two sons.
Cnut died in 1035. In 1036, Emma’s sons with Æthelred returned to England to visit their mother. They were soon captured; Alfred was murdered and Edward fled. The attackers are a source of scholarly speculation, with some suggesting Emma may have been involved in her son’s murder. Years later, Edward returned to England as co-ruler with his half-brother, Harthacnut, with Emma playing a significant role in the arrangement. Contemporary reports describe her as a rich and influential woman.
After her death in 1052 Emma was interred alongside Cnut and Harthacnut. Her son Edward the Confessor died without children and England fell into the hands of Emma’s grand-nephew, the Norman Duke - William the Conqueror.
Alexandra Feodorovna of Russia
Tibetan monks playing long horns with the Dalai Lama residence in the background, 1938
Medieval music books, with their merry notes jumping off the page, are a pleasure to look at. This sensational page from the 14th century adds to this experience in a most unusual manner. It presents a well-known song, the French ballade titled En la maison Dedalus (In the house of Dedalus), be it that the scribe decided to write both music and lyrics in a circular form. There is reason behind this madness. The maze created by music and words locks up the main character of the song, the mythological figure Ariadne, who is a prisoner in the house of Daedalus - she is represented by the red dot. The book contains treatises on music theory, notation, tuning and chant. In other words, it was meant for experts readers. The beholder likely enjoyed the challenge of singing a circular song (did he or she spin the book around?) and how it held its subject hostage in the merriest of ways.
April 15th, 1912, around 9:00 am: the last Titanic survivors have been taken aboard the Carpathia.
The story of this newspaper boy from London is equally tragic. The boy, named Ned Parfett, would later grow up and enlist in the First World War, only to be killed in France less than two weeks before the end of the war. On the day he was killed, he was due to go home on leave. x
->April 15, 1452-Birth of Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci
"Art is never finished, only abandoned."
-Leonardo da Vinci
Agnes Scott College appointed student firefighters to protect their dormitories. In this 1913 photo, students are practicing how to put out a fire at Rebekah Scott Hall.
The Coronation of Henry V
9 April 1413
King Henry V of England was crowned in a ceremony at Westminster, on this day in British history, 9 April 1413. The coronation was officiated by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Arundel. The only main details recorded by contemporary chroniclers focus on the bad weather–a snowstorm–and on the food served at the banquet. Because the coronation had taken place on Passion Sunday, and the English monarchs were still Catholic, the only meat served at the banquet was fish.